PONTIFICAL COUNCIL for INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE

 

  Closing Remarks

His Eminence Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran

Pronounced at the Closing Ceremony

of the Sixth Buddhist-Christian Colloquium

Taipei, 16 November 2017

 Closing Remarks
for the Sixth Buddhist-Christian Colloquium
His Eminence Cardinal Jean Louis Tauran
President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue
Taipei, 16 November 2017

 

 Dharma Master Ven. Hsin Tao,

Eminence,

Excellencies,

Distinguished Buddhist and Christian leaders,

Ladies and Gentlemen

             We have reached the end of the 6th Buddhist-Christian Colloquium. Even though, I was not present at the beginning, I was told that it has been a great success. I would like to thank all of you for participating actively in this Colloquium as well as for the quality and variety of your presentations. I also take this opportunity to greet the distinguished authorities who honour us with their presence today. I am sure that your minds and hearts are filled with joy and happiness for the opportunity to make new friends and renew old acquaintances as well as to discuss and exchange ideas and experiences related to a culture of peace.

            After three days of enriching exchanges on the general theme Christians and Buddhists Walking Together on the Path of Nonviolence, we are about to go back to our respective countries and institutions. At this point, we need to ask how can we go beyond the exterior surface of our interfaith encounters and use the knowledge and experiences we received at this Conference to fashion a world that is free of violence.

             In my Vesakh Message for 2017, I mentioned that:

 “Though we recognize the uniqueness of our two religions, to which we remain committed, we agree that violence comes forth from the human heart, and that personal evils lead to structural evils. […]” (n. 6).

             Violence, in other words, is manifested not only at the individual and social levels; it is also manifested structurally through socio-economic, political, cultural, and media forces. We are, therefore, called to work together to dismantle the evil that operates in us as well as in our social structures by:

  •  Speaking truth to power;
  • Speaking truth in charity;
  • Overcoming a ‘culture of indifference’ and building a ‘culture of encounter’;
  • Moving from a ‘culture of reaction’ to a ‘culture of prevention’;
  • Ending a culture of impunity and promoting ‘a culture of respect’; and
  • Social peace through inner peace.

 

  1. Speaking truth to power

            Speaking truth to power means that we speak out in defence of the powerless, calling for justice, and denouncing the situations that perpetuate injustice. We do so because of our inner conviction that the religious truths we profess call us to speak out on behalf of the victims of the misuse of power. When Lord Buddha spoke truth to power, there were attempts on his life. Speaking the truth to power cost Jesus Christ his life. As followers of Buddha and Jesus, we must have the courage to decry the evils we see. Such words and deeds comfort the afflicted; they also afflict the comfortable.

            During the Vietnam War, the Buddhist monk Thich Nhat Hanh was judged a traitor by both sides in his country’s conflict because he had called for peace in Vietnam. Thomas Merton called him “My Brother”. Their interfaith friendship strengthened their determination to speak with one voice, the voice of love and compassion. In so doing, they became a voice for the voiceless. The example of this remarkable interfaith friendship and solidarity can inspire us as we face situations of injustice, oppression, and exclusion.

  1. Speaking truth in charity

            When we speak the truth, how we say it matters? We need to learn how to speak the truth of nonviolence with charity. Angulimāla was a ruthless serial killer, but Buddha was able to redeem him, and he later became an arahant, a saint. Mathew was a tax collector who was despised by his fellow Jews because he was collaborating with the Roman occupation force. Yet, when Jesus invited him to be his follower, Mathew not only became one of the twelve close disciples of Jesus but also one of the four Evangelists who preserved the teaching and deeds of Jesus. These transforming experiences show us that the human person has the capacity for spiritual progress, regardless of his or her past. In other words, we can and should judge evil deeds, but we must do so without condemning the evildoer.

 Overcoming a ‘culture of indifference’ and building a ‘culture of encounter’

            Pope Francis warned that we have fallen into a globalisation of indifference that is causing individuals and communities to withdraw into themselves, closing out the “other” (Cf. Message for Lent, 2015). As a remedy, he invites us to work for a culture of encounter, as Jesus did. He emphasizes how different a culture of encounter is from a culture of indifference when he says that it involves “not just seeing, but looking; not just hearing, but listening; not just passing people by, but stopping with them; not just saying “what a shame, poor people!”, but allowing yourself to be moved with compassion; “and then to draw near, to touch and to say: ‘Do not weep’ and to give at least a drop of life” (Morning Meditation in the Chapel of the Domus Sanctae Marthae, 13 September 2016).

            I am well aware that the Lord Buddha and many of his disciples in the past and in our own time have worked to foster a culture of encounter in place of a culture of indifference. Moving from a ‘culture of reaction’ to a ‘culture of prevention’

            When faced with violence, people often react violently and seek freedom from discrimination and oppression. Violence only perpetrates more violence, creating a vicious circle. In many parts of the world, there are political situations that lead to untold acts of revenge. The 21st century has been marked by identity-based conflicts, conflicts that are related to ethnic, cultural, and religious affiliations and identifications.

            Jesus opposed use of violence when he said, “All who will take up the sword, will die by the sword.” Buddha said, “Hate is never ended by more hate, but by friendship; that is an eternal law.” They were promoters of a culture of prevention, a culture that addresses the socio-economic and political roots of conflicts and tension and seeks to provide protection for the afflicted and vulnerable parties. It opposes indiscriminate offensive military actions; tackles self-directed, interpersonal, and collective violence; averts verbal, physical, sexual, and psychological abuse; develops safe, stable, and nurturing relationships between children and their parents and caregivers; promotes gender equality to prevent violence against women; safeguards the environment, our common home; and fosters dialogue at all levels to build inclusive societies.

 

  1. Ending of a culture of impunity and promoting a culture of respect

            In the Vesakh Message for 2017, I noted that “many of our societies grapple with the impact of past and present wounds caused by violence and conflicts” (n. 5). Majoritarianism, that is, rule by a majority at the expense of minorities, leads to relentless violence. In time of conflicts, when the state sanctions discriminatory laws, when it convicts and subsequently carries out arbitrary executions, it breaks the rule of law and creates a culture of impunity. In such a culture, people come to believe that they are free to do whatever they want, without having to face any consequences for their actions.

            Pope Francis notes that “War ruins everything, even the bonds between brothers. War is irrational; its only plan is to bring destruction: it seeks to grow by destroying.” (Military Memorial in Redipuglia, Saturday, 13 September 2014). Wars and conflicts have huge human, economic, social, and political costs. In post-conflict situations, the wounds of wars and conflicts often continue. Therefore, the social, economic, and political realities in our respective countries call upon all of us to engage in a spiritual battle within ourselves, within our religions, and within our societies. We need to reconcile our polarized societies. Violent conflicts inflict wounds on everyone, and therefore all are in need of healing. The victim suffers from being treated as less than human, while the perpetrator often suffers from guilt.

            The Golden Rule, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” lays the foundation for a culture of respect. Such a culture flows from an inner disposition that calls us to look upon and treat the “other” as a true sister or brother, not as an enemy or rival.

 

  1. Social peace through inner peace

            Pascal, the French philosopher, used to say; “All of humanity’s problems stem from man’s inability to sit quietly in a room alone.” Abba Moses, one of the great Desert fathers, would counsel his monks: “Go, sit in your cell, and your cell will teach you everything.” ‘Cell’ means ‘self’ or ‘heart’. Violence that is present in our hearts is also manifested in our society. By changing our inner worlds, we can positively influence our outer world. Through prayer, silence, and meditation, let us cultivate inner freedom, purity of heart, compassion, forgiveness, and the gift of self, all of which are essential conditions for the inner peace of the individual as well as for social peace.

 

Conclusion

            Because violence shatters human lives, our common task is to heal a fractured world. Interreligious dialogue is the antidote to today’s violence. Our reactions to violence must avoid contradictions and inconsistencies. Sometimes, we have a tendency to be vigorous in condoning the violence that was perpetrated in one incident, and then are equally passionate about condemning the violence in another incident. Our reaction to violence must be based on the dignity of the human person and not on our cultural identities and prejudices. What is needed today to foster a nonviolent world is a socially engaged Buddhist-Christian dialogue. Let us commit ourselves to cultivating within our families and within our social, political, civil, and religious institutions a new style of living where violence is rejected and the human person is respected!

 

            I thank you once again for your presence at this important dialogue. I value strong and friendly relations between the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue and our Buddhist friends. I express my sincere gratitude to all those who made this event a reality, in particular, the Chinese Regional Bishops' Conference (CRBC), Ling Jiou Buddhist Monastery, the Government of the Republic of China (Taiwan), and also its embassy to the Holy See. It is very important today to disseminate the message of nonviolence to a wider audience. Let us do it together while walking on the path of nonviolence.

 

 

 

JEAN-LOUIS TAURAN, born 5 April 1943 in Bordeaux, France. He was ordained as priest for the Archdiocese of Bordeaux on 20 September 1969. He studied at Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, earning Licentiates in Philosophy and Theology, and a Doctorate in Canon Law. He also studied at Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy in Rome, and Catholic University of Toulouse. He entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, in 1975, and served as secretary of the Apostolic Nunciatures to the Dominican Republic (1975-1978) and to Lebanon (1979-1983). He became an official of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Secretariat of State, in 1983. On 1 December 1990, he was appointed Secretary for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State, and Titular Archbishop of Thélepte by Saint John Paul II. He received the episcopal consecration on 6 January 1991 from Saint John Paul II, in Saint Peter's Basilica. He served as Secretary until 6 October 2003.

He was created Cardinal-Deacon of Sain’Appolinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine by Saint John Paul II in the Consistory of 21 October 2003. On the following 24 November, he was appointed Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, and on 25 June 2007 as President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. As the Cardinal Proto-deacon at the 2013 Conclave, he announced the election of Pope Francis, on 13 March 2013, and formally bestowed the pallium on him at the Mass for the beginning of his Petrine Ministry. Pope Francis elevated him to the title of Cardinal-Priest, on 12 June 2014, and appointed him Chamberlain (Camerlengo) of the Holy Roman Church, on 20 December 2014.

He is also a member of the Secretariat of State (Section for the Relations with States); for Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith; the Congregation for the Oriental Churches; the Congregation for Bishops; the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity; the Pontifical Council for Culture; the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, and the Cardinal Commission for the Supervision of the Institute for Works of Religion (IOR).

 

宗座宗教交談委員會主席──陶然樞機主教

第六屆佛教徒與基督徒對話國際研討會閉幕致詞

20171116

 

 

可敬的心道法師,

樞機主教,

主教,

各位佛教及基督徒領導人,

各位貴賓:

 

            第六屆佛教徒與基督徒國際研討會,如今已接近尾聲。雖然我並未從一開始就參加,但已有耳聞非常成功。我在此謹向各位致謝,感謝您們積極參與這次研討會,並在會議報告中呈現豐富多元及水準之上的內容。我也藉此機會特別向今天前來參與閉幕式的政府官員們致意,您們的蒞臨是我們至高的榮幸。我相信此刻您們的內心必充滿福樂,一方面結識新友、重溫舊識,一方面對於和平的文化,又能多行研討,交流相關的想法與經驗。

 

            經過三天針對大會主題「佛教徒和基督徒並肩同行,走非暴力之路」豐富的交流之後,我們現在準備回到各自的國家和機構。就此,我們必須自問應如何超越外在表面的信仰交流,運用我們在本屆研討會所得到的知識和經驗,塑造一個無暴力的世界。

           

            在2017年的〈衛塞節文告〉中,我曾提到:「雖然我們承認我們這兩大宗教的獨特性,始終保持各自的信仰,但我們彼此都認同,暴力出自人心,個人的惡會導致結構性的惡。」(〈衛塞節文告〉6)換言之,暴力不僅呈現在個人及社會層面,也透過社經、政治、文化及媒體的力量,有結構性的顯露出來。因此,我們受召共同努力,經由下列途徑,來卸除操弄我們自身及社會結構的邪惡:

 

  1. 向權勢直言真理;
  2. 在愛中直言真理;
  3. 克服「冷漠文化」,建立「相遇文化」;
  4. 從「對抗的文化」轉換成「預防的文化」;
  5. 終結「逍遙法外的文化」,推動「互相尊重的文化」;以及
  6. 藉心中的平安締造社會的和平。

 

  1. 1.   權勢直言真理

意謂我們要捍衛弱勢,為其發聲,申張正義,直指形成不公正的諸多情況。我們之所以如此行動,是因為我們內心深信我們所宣認的宗教真理,促使我們為濫用權勢的受害者發聲。當佛祖向權勢直言真理時,他的生命多次瀕臨危險。耶穌基督為了向權勢直言真理,付上生命的代價。身為佛祖和耶穌的追隨者,當我們目睹罪惡時,必須有勇氣公開予以譴責。如此的言語和行動,使憂苦的人心感安慰,也使自在的人有所不安。

在越南內戰期間,佛教的釋一行禪師因呼籲境內應維持和平,致使敵對兩方皆視之為叛徒。多瑪斯‧牟敦稱他為「我的弟兄」,他們兩人跨越宗教的情誼,加強了他們願意以愛和同情之聲共同發聲的決心。如此,他們為無聲者發聲。此一跨越宗教的友誼和精誠團結,令人讚嘆,在我們面臨種種不公義、受壓迫和被排拒的情況時,給予啟發。

 

2.  在愛中直言真理

 

        當我們直言真理時,如何說出顯得格外重要。因此,我們必須學習如何以愛直言非暴力的真理。央掘摩羅曾是一個冷面無情的連環殺手,但佛陀卻能拯救他,使他後來成為一名聖者、一名阿羅漢。瑪竇曾是一名稅吏,被他的猶太同胞所鄙視,因為他攀附羅馬帝國的權勢。然而,當耶穌召叫瑪竇跟隨祂時,他不僅成為最親近祂的十二門徒之一,也成為四部福音其中一部的作者,紀錄耶穌的教導和事蹟。這些歷經轉變的經驗告訴我們,不論一個人過去如何,他都有能力在靈性上做出突破。換句話說,我們要能夠也應該批判罪惡的行為,而不譴責作惡者。

 

3. 克服「冷漠文化」,建立「相遇文化」

 

        教宗方濟各曾經提出警告,我們已經淪落至「冷漠的全球化」,導致個人和團體自我封閉,排拒「他人」(參閱:2015年〈四旬期文告〉)。為挽救此一困境,他邀請我們努力效法耶穌,致力促成「相遇文化」。他強調相遇文化與冷漠文化的偌大差異,「不只是看見,更要守候;不只是聽見,更要聆聽;不只要和人群擦身而過,但要為他們停下腳步;不要只會說『這些人真可憐!』,但要讓你自己的憐憫之心被觸動,然後去接近他們,去安撫他們,對他們說:『不要哭泣!』,至少給他們一線生機。」(聖瑪爾大之家清晨默想,2016年9月13日)

 

我也覺察佛祖和其從過去到現在的眾多弟子,都曾付諸心力,抵抗冷漠文化,促進相遇文化。相遇文化指責排斥及孤立窮人和處於社會邊緣弱勢的行為。相遇文化意識到我們和「他人」──不論種族、宗教、文化或社會經濟層面的差異,都擁有同一人性,因此鼓勵人們彼此相接待。

 

4.  從「對抗的文化」轉換成「預防的文化

 

        當面臨暴力時,人們通常以暴制暴,以求不再受到歧視與壓迫。然而,暴力只有衍生更多暴力,形成惡性循環。在世界上許多地方,政治情勢導致不計其數的報復行動。二十一世紀是一個充滿身分認同衝突──不論在種族、文化或是宗教上──的時代。

 

耶穌反對使用暴力,他說「凡持劍的,必死在劍下。」佛陀也說:「再多的仇恨都無法終止仇恨,而要用友誼;這是永恆不變的定律。」他們兩者都鼓勵預防的文化──面對形成衝突和張力的社會經濟和政治根源,為蒙受苦難的弱者尋求保護。預防的文化反對濫用攻擊性的軍事行動,消除為滿足自我、人際之間和集體性的暴力,防止言語、身體、性和心理的虐待,發展安全、穩定和充滿愛的親子關係或兒童和照顧者之間的關係;推動性別平等,遏止對婦女的暴力;保護環境,即我們共同的家園;促進各階層的交談,以建立兼容並蓄的社會。

 

5. 終結「逍遙法外的文化」,推動「互相尊重文化」

 

        在2017年的〈衛塞節文告〉中,我提到「我們很多的社會仍設法應付一些過去和現在暴力和衝突造成的傷害帶來的影響。」(〈衛塞節文告〉5)所謂的「多數至上」,即由多數領導,犧牲少數,將導致永無終止的暴力。在發生各種衝突的時刻,當政府當局制裁歧視性的法律,並於定罪之後任意執刑,打破了法治的原則,造成了逍遙法外的文化。在這種文化當中,人們相信他們可以任意非為,不必面對他們的行為所帶來的後果。

                                                                                        

教宗方濟各曾指出:「戰爭摧毀一切,包括緊密相連的兄弟之情。戰爭不具理性,其目的只是帶來毀滅,以為藉由破壞可以強大自己」(雷迪普利亞軍事紀念地,2014年9月13日)。戰爭與衝突要付上龐大的人力、經濟、社會和政治成本。在戰後,因戰火造成的創傷依舊存在。因此,在我們各自的國家當中,就各種社會、經濟和政治的現實而論,都要我們全力以赴,投入這場在我們的內心、我們的宗教和社會裡的屬靈戰爭。我們需要調和我們所身處的兩極化社會。暴力衝突對每個人都造成傷害,所以每個人都需要被治癒:受害者因遭到非人性的對待而受苦,加害者則常因罪惡感而痛苦。

           

        「易地而處,將心比己」乃是金科玉律,是尊重文化的基石。這樣的文化源自人內心的傾向,要我們將「他人」視之為兄弟姊妹,並以真情相待,而非將之當成敵人或對手。

 

6.  藉心中的平安締社會的和平

 

        法國哲學家巴斯卡曾經說過:「人類的一切問題皆來自其無法安靜地於房中獨處。」沙漠教父梅瑟也曾建議他的修士們:「去,安坐在你的小房間(英語「cell」),它將教導你一切。」「Cell」這英文字,本來有「自己」或「心」的意思。暴力存在我們心中,也存在我們的社會。藉由改變我們的內心世界,我們能正面的影響我們外在的世界。透過祈禱、靜默和默想,可以蘊生出內在的自由、心靈的純潔、憐憫、寬恕、自我給予,以及所有形成個人內心平安與社會和平的重要條件。

 

結論

 

          因為暴力摧殘人的生命,我們的共同任務就是使被撕裂的世界得到治癒。宗教交談是解決現今暴力問題的一劑良方。面對暴力,我們應當避免採取自相矛盾和前後不一致的態度。有時,我們在某一事件中傾向縱容暴力,在另一事件中卻積極地譴責暴力。對於暴力,我們的回應該奠基於人類的尊嚴,而非根據文化上的認定與偏見。今天要建立一個非暴力的世界,佛教徒和基督徒需要進行一場社會參與的交談。讓我們齊心合力,在我們的家庭、社會、政治、民間和宗教機構中,建立一個嶄新的生活方式:暴力被摒棄,人們受尊重!

 

本人再次感謝您們出席此次重要的交談。我對宗座宗教交談委員會和佛教徒友人之間的友好關係倍加肯定。此外,我謹在此向所有促成本次大會的相關人員,表達由衷的謝意,特別是台灣地區主教團(CRBC)、靈鷲山佛教教團、中華民國(台灣)政府及其駐教廷大使館全體人員。如今,向更廣大的群眾傳播非暴力的訊息,至為重要;且讓我們並肩同行,一起散布非暴力訊息,走非暴力之路。

 

 

 

 

陶然樞機主教(Card. Jean-Louis Tauran)1943年4月5日生於法國波爾多(Bordeaux),1969年9月20日在波爾多總教區晉鐸,在宗座國端大學進修,獲得哲學及神學碩士學位,以及教會法博士學位。他也先後在羅馬的宗座教會研究院及天主教土魯斯大學深造。1975年,他參與聖座外交事務的服務,成為教廷駐多明尼加共和國大使館(1975-1978) 及駐黎巴嫩大使館(1979-1983)的秘書。

 

1983年他成為國務院外交委員會的官員,1990年12月1日被聖若望保祿二世任命為國務院外交關係祕書以及特雷特(Thélepte)的名義總主教。1991年1月6日又在伯多祿大殿被聖若望保祿二世祝聖為樞機主教,並擔任國務院外交關係祕書的職位至2003年10月6日。

 

在2003年10月21日的樞機主教會議中,陶然樞機被聖若望保祿二世晉升為執事級樞機主教(隸屬Sant’Appolinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine)。同年11月24日,他被任命為羅馬聖教會的檔案館及圖書館館長,並於2007年6月25日被任命為宗座宗教交談委員會主席。在2013年的樞機主教會議中,被選為第一執事級樞機主教。2013年3月13日,他宣布教宗方濟各的當選,並在教宗伯多祿牧職開始之際的就職彌撒中替教宗穿上禮披。2014年6月12日,教宗方濟各擢升他為司鐸級樞機主教,並在同年12月20日任命他為羅馬聖教會的教宗侍從。

 

陶然樞機也是梵蒂岡國務院(外交部)、信理部、東方教會部、主教部、宗座促進基督徒合一委員會、宗座文化委員會、宗座梵蒂岡國委員會,以及監督宗教事務銀行樞機委員會的成員。